Self-organization in Biological Systems

Intro & Characteristics of Self-Organizing Systems (p. 20+)

  • patterns, structures, & decisions appear at the global level of a system based on the interactions among its lower-level components
  • bifurcations, but usually the systems are highly robust
  • positive feedback
  • information:
    • from neighbors
    • from work in progress (stygmergy)
    • => pos. feedback, stygmergy, and the amplification of fluctuations

Models (p. 75)

  • Differential Equation models
    • for continuous systems
  • Monte-Carlo Simulations
    • model each component independently (e.g. discrete systems!)
    • take the average across many runs to get the equilibrium
  • Cellular Automata

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